Giunchi, and S. Additionally, single embryo transfer would inherently decrease maternal and infant health risks associated with multiple gestation pregnancies [ 9 ]. Due to these financial and legal considerations, international surrogacy has emerged as an emerging industry, especially in developing nations [ 52 ]. Session, and T. Recent data suggests that single embryo transfer, coupled with subsequent frozen embryo transfer, results in equivalent pregnancy rates compared with the transfer of multiple embryos, without an increase in multiple pregnancy rates [ 11 ].
Certainly with the frozen ones it's a more natural environment," she said. Embryo Donation IVF cycles often result in couples transferring several embryos and cryopreserving other embryos produced by the cycle, presumptively for the purpose future pregnancy.
Another central concern surrounding the use of surrogates and gestational carriers is the possibility that financial pressures could lead to exploitation and commoidification of the service [ 50 — 53 ]. In the United States in 2007, the number of embryos transferred per cycle ranged from 2. The cost of performing ART per live birth varies among countries [ 4 ]. Due to the rapidly evolving nature of the ART, legislation is often unable to keep pace and address all of the ethical and legal issues that are constantly emerging in the field.
Federally mandated regulations, however, are not limited to registries.
Female fertility is well documented to decrease with age [ 27 , 28 ]. Paul, R. In an effort to define current IVF statistics and to make this information more transparent and available to patients, the Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act of 1992 was created in the United States [ 8 ]. Odom and J.
For example, in an effort to minimize multiple gestation pregnancies resulting from ART, some laws place limits on the number of embryos that may be transferred, cryopreserved, or fertilized per IVF cycle [ 5 , 6 , 15 , 16 ]. Fratto, S. Thomas, and E. Fortunato and E.
View at Google Scholar R. The increased efficiency of IVF has also resulted in an increased rate of multiple gestations. Chambers, E.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Stuart Lavery , director of IVF at Hammersmith Hospital, said the findings should reassure women about the safety of frozen embryos, but did not warrant a radical overhaul of how IVF was offered.
The issue of anonymity as it relates to gamete and embryo donation is emotionally charged.